英语翻译Adam Smith (baptised 16 June 1723 – 17 July 1790 [OS:5 J
Adam Smith (baptised 16 June 1723 – 17 July 1790 [OS:5 June 1723 – 17 July 1790]) was a Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneer of political economy.One of the key figures of the Scottish Enlightenment,Smith is the author of The Theory of Moral Sentiments and An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations.The latter,usually abbreviated as The Wealth of Nations,is considered his magnum opus and the first modern work of economics.Adam Smith is widely cited as the father of modern economics.
Smith studied moral philosophy at the University of Glasgow and Oxford University.After graduating he delivered a successful series of public lectures at Edinburgh,leading him to collaborate with David Hume during the Scottish Enlightenment.Smith obtained a professorship at Glasgow teaching moral philosophy,and during this time wrote and published The Theory of Moral Sentiments.In his later life he took a tutoring position which allowed him to travel throughout Europe where he met other intellectual leaders of his day.Smith returned home and spent the next ten years writing The Wealth of Nations (mainly from his lecture notes) which was published in 1776.He died in 1790.
 Early life
Adam Smith was born to Margaret Douglas at Kirkcaldy,Fife,Scotland.His father,also named Adam Smith,was a lawyer,civil servant,and widower who married Margaret Douglas in 1720 and died six months before Smith was born. Although the exact date of Smith's birth is unknown,his baptism was recorded on 16 June 1723 at Kirkcaldy. Though few events in Smith's early childhood are known,Scottish journalist and biographer of Smith John Rae recorded that Smith was abducted by gypsies at the age of four and eventually released when others went to rescue him.[note 1] Smith was particularly close to his mother,who likely encouraged him to pursue his scholarly ambitions. He attended the Burgh School of Kirkcaldy – characterised by Rae as "one of the best secondary schools of Scotland at that period" – from 1729 to 1737. There he studied Latin,mathematics,history,and writing.
He published The Theory of Moral Sentiments in 1759,embodying some of his Glasgow lectures.This work was concerned with how human morality depends on sympathy between agent and spectator,or the individual and other members of society.He bases his explanation not on a special "moral sense",as the third Lord Shaftesbury and Hutcheson had done,nor on utility as Hume did,but on sympathy.Smith's popularity greatly increased due to the The Theory of Moral Sentiments,and as a result,many wealthy students left their schools in other countries to enroll at Glasgow to learn under Smith.